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Home Introductory Human Biology in English Cranial and Facial Bones

Cranial and Facial Bones

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Fig. 5

The skull can be divided into two regions, the cranium and the face (figure 1). The cranium is composed of eight bones: occipital (1), parietal (2), temporal (2), frontal (1), sphenoid (1), and ethmoid (1). The bones of the cranium are separated from each other by joints called sutures. The occipital bone is the most inferior and posterior bone of the cranium. It surrounds the foramen magnum through which the spinal cord enters the cranium. The occipital bone also has various smaller foramena which allow for passage of the cranial nerves and blood vessels (figure 2). The left and right parietal bones form the roof of the cranium. The frontal bone is, of course, the most anterior bone of the cranium. The sphenoid bone is a single bat-shaped bone which forms the anterior base of the cranium. The ethmoid bone is a porous block of bone at the back of the nasal cavities (figure 3).

Within the left and right temporal bones are three small bones of the middle ear: the malleus, the incus and the stapes.

The face consists of fourteen bones (figure 4): nasal (2), lacrimal (2), inferior nasal conchae (2), palatine (2), vomer (1), zygomatic (2), maxillae (2) and mandible (1). The nasal bones form the roof or "bridge" of the nose. The lacrimal bones form the inside corners of the orbits of the eyes. The inferior nasal conchae, also called turbinates, project into the nasal cavities from the lateral walls. The palatine bones form the anterior roof of the oral cavity. The single vomer sits in the midline, posterior to the palatine bones. The zygomatic bones form the inferior lateral margins of the orbits. The paired maxillae form the upper jaw. In infancy, the lower jaw consists of two bones, but these fuse with age to form the single mandible.

Inferior to the mandible and at the root of the tongue is a single curved bone, the hyoid (figure 5). This bone is not part of the face, but is more properly associated with the skeleton of the larynx.

Self-assessment 

English - Japanese Glossary

bone: 骨 (hone ); cartilage: 軟骨 (nankotsu); cranium: 脳頭蓋(nouzugai); ethmoid bone:し骨 (shikotsu); face: 顔面頭蓋 (ganmenzugai); frontal bone: 前頭骨 (zentoukotsu); hyoid: 舌骨 (zetsukotsu); incus: きぬ た骨 (kinutakotsu); inferior nasal conchae (turbinates):下鼻甲介 (kabikoukai); lacrimal bone: 涙骨 (ruikotsu); malleus: 鎚骨 (tsuchikotsu); mandible:下顎骨 (kagakukotsu); maxillary bone (maxilla):上顎骨 (jougakukotsu); nasal bone:鼻骨(bikotsu); occipital bone (occiput): 後頭骨 (koutoukotsu); palatine bone: 口蓋骨(kougaikotsu); parietal bone: 頭頂骨 (touchoukotsu); skeleton: 骨格 (kokkaku); skull: 頭蓋 (zugai); sphenoid bone: 蝶形骨 (choukeikotsu); stapes: あぶみ骨 (abumikotsu); temporal bone: 側頭骨 (sokutoukotsu); vomer: 鋤骨 (jokotsu); zygomatic bone: きょう骨 (kyoukotsu)

English - French Glossary

bone: os ; cartilage: cartilage ; cranium: crâne ; ethmoid bone: ethmoïde ; face: visage ; frontal bone: frontal ; hyoid: hyoïde ; incus: incus (enclume) ; inferior nasal conchae : cornet inférieur ; lacrimal bone: os lacrymal ; malleus: malleus (marteau) ; mandible: mandibule ; maxillary bone (maxilla): maxillaire ; nasal bone: os propre du nez ; occipital bone (occiput): occipital ; palatine bone: palatin ; parietal bone: pariétal ; skeleton: squelette ; skull: crâne ; sphenoid bone: sphénoïde ; stapes: stapès (étrier) ; temporal bone: temporal; vomer: vomer;  zygomatic bone: os zygomatique

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 01 October 2013 00:26